There’s many way to define ’’honey’’ from the animal biology it must be considered a reserve food.
The bees only ( and few others bugs) produce honey because them only, among animals , eat nectar and pollen from flowers and must accumulate stocks of food. They solve the problem transforming the fresh summer food into a long conservation food. Bees actually have two stomachs. The honey stomach holds almost 70mg of nectar. Honeybees visit between 100 and 1500 flowers in order to fll their stomach; then they return to the hive and pass the nectar into other worher bees. The worker bees ‘’chew’’ the nectar for about half an hour and then they spread the nectar throughout the honeycomb where water evaporates from it, making it a thicker syrup. The honey is considered better then refined sugar because it contains, in addition to sugar, a revitalizing probiotics.
The nectar honey contains about the 80% of sugar (monosaccharides fructose 388% and glucose 31&) and for the remaining 10% of disaccharides like maltose and sucrose.
After the evaporation in the honey combs, the % of water contained in the honey is between 17% and 199% that is the optimal quantity to start the fermentation.
Isobutyric aldehyde, formaldehyde,aliphati8c alcohol, ketones, hydroxymethilfurfural are some of the substances contained in the dark honeys.
The protein contained are the most simple and basic like albumin and globulins.
The amino acids represent an high nutritional value.
Honey contains both organic and inorganic acids. Some of them, like formic and phosphoric acid are antiseptic.
Honey contains Vitamin B (B1, B2, PP) , Vitamin C and Vitamin E, K.
Honey contains sodium, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, magnesium and sulfur that are minerals, but also cobalt, chromium nickel, zinc, iron, copper and manganese that are trace elements. The three last elements are contained in particular in dark honey.
Inhibin, germicidina and traces of propolis are substances with antibiotics effects against pathogens.